As the Facade is called the restrictive surface of a building. More often it happens vertical.
Facades happen various depending on the general form, size, building and visible materials of a surface, an arrangement, the sizes and contours of reliefs and flights. Reliefs are meant as acting horizontal and vertical dividing elements which concern an eaves, a frieze, lizena (shovel), a support, a pilaster or a niche. Sometimes in registration of facades deep loggias, and also columns, arcades (numbers of arches), the buttresses located separately before an external wall and creating in the foreground "a transparent" wall are used. Presence of acting parts of a building, external ladders, plane and sculptural ornaments, bay windows, painting and a sculpture does a facade by more expressive.
Designing and architectural decisions
In national architecture for building of the house and other constructions natural materials of the given district were most often used: the stone, a tree, a tufa, a shell rock, saman, etc. Occasionally some external parts of houses were plastered by limy solutions, revetted with a stone, a brick, a board, boarded or other materials. .
In board of a dynasty Karolingov (VIII-X centuries) in Average Europe begins erection of buildings from a stone. By this time in building already there was enough big art experience borrowed from antiquity. .
(X-XII centuries) in a basis of architectural decisions have been put In the Romance period the Roman forms used first of all in registration of facades. For them modest ornaments and small polutsirkulnye the windows creating simple external shape were characteristic. .
In a gothic style (XII-XIV centuries) a town hall and temples vertical partitioning was peculiar to facades. In registration of an environment of altars of cathedrals vertically focused system of buttresses and arkbutanov was applied. The aspiration to symmetry was the Distinctive feature of architecture of churches, temples and cathedrals of this period, and at building of secular buildings were used asimmetricheskie compositions more often. .
In baroque (a game. XVI - sulfurs. XVIII century) in registration of facades there are antifolds with the broken off pediments and the broken eaves, with solemnly-magnificent big and symmetric warrants.
Contrary to baroque in architectural decisions of facades of the period of classicism (a game. XVII - nach. XIX century) arcades and colonnades most often joined.
The Modernist style (a game. XIX - nach. XX century) differed soft forms and a small amount of decorative ornaments. .
Modern architectural decisions of facades can satisfy taste even the most incorrigible original. Numerous design firms are in a short space of time capable to pick up the project most suitable to the customer in which very courageous decisions, forms and colours (fig. 1 can be used).
a Fig. 1. The Country house for the big family