the Most widespread way of furnish of walls is facing by plates from various materials. Facing of external walls is made krupnorazmernoj ceramic glazurirovannoj by a tile, cards of a carpet mosaic from ceramic or glass tiles, tiles from decorative colour concrete with the various invoice and plates from a natural stone. The thickness of a front tile can be from 4 to 9 mm. Depending on the sizes of a tile the inside should have riflenija or cambers in height from 0,7 to 2 mm. Ceramic plates in the size 150x75x7 mm also are less used for preparation of mosaic cards. Application of cards considerably reduces time of facing works.
External facing of walls is most subject to negative influence of the natural phenomena. Therefore for facade facing it is necessary to choose especially cold-resistant tiles with high chemical characteristics.
It is considered the Most convenient a way of furnish of walls during laying process as at facing of a ready wall quality of a surface raises, but furnish is considered more difficult and labour-consuming performed by. It is necessary to prepare specially a surface of walls, to establish external woods and fastenings for facing etc.
Works on facing of walls is better to spend to a warm season at humidity of a facing surface not above 8%. Before facing the wall is necessary for clearing carefully of a dust, a dirt, the cement mortal rests, and then provesit and to moisten with water. .
The Technology of facing of a facade (at earlier laid out walls) an artificial material is identical to all kinds of furnish. Before to start facing of walls, it is necessary to make preliminary vyverenie planes of walls plumbs. In need of a hollow close up a cement mortal, and hillocks cut down. Sites of walls between a socle and a corbel, between a corbel and an eaves proveshivajutsja separately.
Proveshivanie is made according to marking of vertical axial lines: axes piljastrov, apertures and ledges. Marking of steep lines are put on all height of buildings, from eaves to a socle. At first it is necessary provesit external corners, planes of walls, then only slopes of apertures. .
After proveshivanija by means of established majachnyh horizontal reek and vertical reek-porjadovok position of each plate of facing is established. For this purpose to a wall on distance of 10-15 m from each other krepjat vertical majachnye rejki-porjadovki also mark all numbers of facing on height taking into account crosspieces, horizontal lines of corbels etc. Simultaneously with crutches are established horizontal marking porjadovye rejki on which vertical seams between facing plates should be noted. On these marking facing plates also are established. In a case, when facing plates krepjat to a wall with the help skob and hooks prior to the beginning of facing it is necessary to close up in a wall of a detail of fastening.
Prior to the beginning of product facing it is necessary to sort according to their marks, tone of colouring and the sizes. Plates should have equal obverse surfaces, without mechanical damages (the beaten off corners, curvatures, cracks etc.).
Surfaces of walls revet with plates from a natural stone, decorative concrete, prislonnymi ceramic tiles. Prislonnye tiles fasten only a cement solution. Thus the thickness and horizontal and vertical seams should equal 8-12 mm. And a wall before packing it is necessary to moisten the back party of tiles with water preliminary a little. A thickness of a solution between the back party of a tile and a wall - no more than 15-20 mm. In the course of work it is necessary to check all time prostukivaniem degree of filling of a wall a solution that there were no emptiness. Thus the thickness of seams at facing of walls by plates should equal 10 mm. By the work end all external seams in facing should be filled by a solution and are embroidered.
At facing it is necessary to watch quality of an obverse surface constantly: an identical shade of facing products, their drawing, in the thickness and filling of seams etc.; horizontal position of numbers, vertical position of corners and slopes, behind correctness of bandaging and fastening of facing products. .
For each kind of facing works corresponding kinds of tools and adaptations ( fig. 10 ) are required. As most necessary of them are considered:
- an ordinary shovel - usually trapezoid form with utolshchennoj on the end the handle. It is intended for preparation and hashing of a solution, its drawing on a tile;
- shpatel - it is intended for mastic drawing;
- a hammer (small) and a peaked chisel - serve for preparation of a revetted surface;
- the metal square - is intended for check of right angles;
- steklorez and the ruler - serves for division of tiles into parts;
- the plumb, building and flexible levels, rejka - are intended for check of horizontal and vertical seams of facing.
Besides, during work for natjagivanija a cord, wooden klinyshki nails can be useful for maintenance of identical width of seams, a sponge for wetting of a surface of facing and rags for its clearing.
a Fig. 10. Tools and adaptations for facing works:
And - a metal square; - a hammer; in - building level.
a Fig. 10. Tools and adaptations for facing works (continuation):
g - flexible level; d - a plumb; e - steklorez.