If the lay of land on which house building is conducted, has a small bias, pertinently to make it of ready ferro-concrete marches ( fig. 73 ).
a Fig. 73. Versions of steps of concrete ladders :
And - rectangular; - triangular; in - angular; g - rectangular steps with a groove
For a flat surface it is possible to use ferro-concrete blocks in the form of rectangular, triangular and angular steps.
Concrete steps keep within on an integral packed ground with which it is preliminary necessary to condense with rubble. With that end in view in a ground are dug out podstupeni and appear the size corresponding to a plate. Then it is necessary to condense the basis of the first step with granite rubble, having taken advantage for this purpose trambovkoj. After that cement by a layer of 2-3 sm is imposed, and the step block from above keeps within.
Concrete blocks can be executed independently. In the beginning prepare a timbering from wooden boards, and in it establish a grid or a skeleton from armaturnoj steels. Thus the forward top edge of a step should be strengthened. For this purpose welding attach a corner to armaturnomu to a skeleton, having taken advantage of metal cores. Then a timbering fill in with concrete, having condensed it with the help trambovki (or the vibrator).
To level a surface of steps, take advantage masterkom, and then strew their dry cement, in need of slightly it having moistened. It will in addition strengthen steps and metal shine will add to them. .
Cold-resistant materials are usually applied To facing of an external ladder: natural and artificial stones (a thickness of 3-4 sm), a ceramic tile etc. ( fig. 74 ).
a Fig. 74. Variants of furnish of an external ladder from concrete blocks
It is not necessary to forget thus that used materials should not be slippery to provide safety during ladder operation. With that end in view pertinently to take advantage of a rough or corrugated tile.
To execute facing of steps, in the beginning it is necessary to remove the solution and dirt rests from their surface. After that it is necessary to spread out a tile to define those places where there will be seams. .
In certain cases there is a necessity to cut a tile. For this purpose risks are put on its surface, and then on the planned line split becomes. The ceramic tile is easily enough cut with the help stekloreza.
After the preliminary marking is made, it is necessary to prepare a solution from sand and the cement taken in equal parts. The solution is put shpatelem by a layer in the thickness 3-5 see Over a solution the tile keeps within. It is fixed in it by means of a lung postukivanija by the handle masterka on a surface. During the same time the facing surface should be levelled.
After packing of a tile from its surface surpluses of a solution leave. This operation should be carried out very accurately not to deform the revetted surface. .
Then steps cover the humidified sacking or a canvas and leave in such condition for days. .
After this term if necessary seams between tiles are filled with the liquid solution which surpluses leave a sacking or rags. .
After full drying of a solution the tile surface is carefully wiped. That seams on joints with vertical surfaces were stronger, they should be processed a silicone filler.