For illumination of the open areas lamps nakalivanija, luminescent, arc mercury lamps of a high pressure, metallogalogennye are used.
the Lamp nakalivanija is issued several kinds which differ under electric and lighting operational characteristics. Its nominal service life - 1 thousand hours.
Lamps nakalivanija have following letter designations: - bispiralnaja, In - a vacuum lamp, G - filled with an argon mix (86%) and nitrogen (14%), BK - bispiralnaja with an argon mix (86%) and nitrogen (14%), MT - with martirovannoj a flask, ML - in a flask of dairy colour, About - in an opal flask etc. The figures standing after letters, serve for a designation of a range of pressure of a food of lamps (in voltah) and rated power (in watts).
In to a luminescent lamp low pressure the so-called decaying electric charge in the gas environment is used. Such lamp has some advantages:
- high factor of action (at the same power consumption gives brightness in 4 times more than a lamp nakalivanija);
- high profitability (heating spirals join on a short time interval, light a lamp, and then are disconnected by means of a starter);
- wide spectral structure of radiation (it is as much as possible approached to natural illumination, allows to use lamps for the various purposes);
- long service life (about 12 thousand hours).
The Luminescent lamp consists of a long glass tube (happens various length) with the electrodes which inside is covered by a layer ljuminofora.
At storage and use of luminescent lamps some conditions should be met: humidity no more than 70% and temperature 18-25 °s. The raised humidity and low temperature can lead to a lamp exit out of operation.
Depending on used in a lamp ljuminofora it can have various colours which are designated on a surface of a lamp by letters. On all luminescent lamps of the first the L letter that means "ы¦ьшэхёчхэ=эр " is written;. Other letters - from L to TS - bear the information on spectral structure and on features of a design of a lamp: And - amalgamnaja, - white, D - day, TB - heat-white, HB - is cold-white, E - natural, BE - white natural, F - photosynthetic, R - reflex, To - ring, U-U-shaped. There are luminescent lamps with chromaticity instructions (. They have the improved spectral structure of radiation by which their use for podtsvetki various subjects is caused.
The Figures written on lamps after letters, designate rated power of lamps in watts (Vt). There are lamps with following face values: 6, 9, 11, 15, 18, 20, 30, 36, 40, 58, 65, 80, 125 and 150 Vt.
Most often for illumination of facades and the territory adjoining to the house, are used arc mercury lamps of a high pressure (DRL). Their design is based on application of the phenomenon of the arc category in mercury steams during which time there is a powerful ultra-violet radiation. .
Such lamps have some advantages, and also lacks. They cannot be used for a qualitative colour rendition, however possess high profitability (in comparison with lamps nakalivanija).
For DRL the network with rated voltage 220 or 380 V.Takie lamps is used have various capacity: 50, 80, 125, 400, 700, 1000 and 2000 Vt. .
Also for illumination of the open areas are used metallogalogennye lamps DRI. On a structure they remind mercury lamps of a high pressure. They also have the characteristics designated by means of letters: D - arc, 3 - mirror, And - with radiating additives, R - mercury. The figure of marks following the letter serves for a rated power designation in watts: 250, 400, 700, 1000, 2000 and 3500 Vt. Duration of service life of lamps DRI fluctuates from 600 till 10000 o'clock.
Lamps nakalivanija are connected to a network simply enough. For this purpose it is necessary to connect it to zero and phase wires of electroconducting, and the switch it is necessary to arrange on a phase wire. It is a necessary security measure on a case of replacement of a lamp or repair. .
After to the top contact of a cartridge of a lamp, and the phase wire is connected to a carving - zero, it can be included.
By means of the special switch it is possible to include various groups of lamps simultaneously. It is especially convenient when it is required to shine big enough area with various variants of illumination.
The starter, a throttle are necessary For connection to a network of a luminescent lamp (PRA) and the condenser.
The Throttle represents a winding located on the core from a sheet electrotechnical steel which is consistently attached to a lamp. By means of a throttle process of ignition of a lamp and current restriction occur smoothly, without supposing thus combustion of electrodes and, allowing a lamp to work in regular intervals. .
The Starter is connected to a lamp in parallel. On fig. 55 the scheme of inclusion of luminescent lamps is given. On the throttle case it is possible to see a combination of letters and figures which designate its mission, features of a design, execution, and also parametres. An example: 2УБИ-40/220-АВПП-900 GOST 16809-71 - such throttle represents two-lamp induction starternyj the device with preliminary heating of electrodes of a lamp capacity of 40 Vt for connection in a single-phase network 220 In, with shift of a phase of the built in design, with low noise level and number of the project 900.
a Fig. 55. The scheme of inclusion of luminescent lamps :
EL1 - A lamp luminescent; KK - a starter; With - the condenser; LL - a throttle
On the starter case also there are the alphabetic and digital designations specifying in prospective capacity of a lamp and rated voltage of a starter. An example: 20С-127 - the letter With means a starter, 20 - limiting capacity of luminescent lamps (from 4 to 20 Vt), 127 - pressure in voltah. .
In that case when capacity of a throttle does not correspond to the capacity specified on a lamp, it will not be lighted.
More often repair of luminescent lamps is made by the qualified expert. But in certain cases it is possible to manage and by own strength. The luminescent lamp is not lighted:
- in the absence of pressure in a feeding chain. In this case be convinced of correctness of the conclusions, having connected in a network the serviceable electrodevice;
- at malfunction of the switch. It is necessary to replace the switch or to repair it, and then to include a lamp;
- in the absence of electric contact between pins of a lamp and lamellar elements of a cartridge which is easily restored at small turn of a lamp in a cartridge;
- in the absence of electric contact between a starter and starteroderzhatelem. For check of this malfunction it is necessary to remove a starter, and then again to establish it in starteroderzhatel. Also it is possible to take advantage of a serviceable starter, having established it in the electric system;
- at malfunction of a lamp and a starter. In this case it is required to change the damaged device on new, serially having checked up malfunction of everyone.