For an ornament of facades of buildings is better the decorative elements executed in such ways, as a plane, relief, procarved and unprofitable carving approach.
the Plane carving
The Plane carving is named so because work is made with a flat wooden surface. Thus drawing can represent a number of deepenings (this kind of a carving is called ploskovyjamchatym), and can is volume to act over a background plane (ploskorelefnaja a carving).
Ploskovyjamchataja a carving
On a way of performance and a kind of received drawing ploskovyjamchataja the carving shares on geometrical and skobchatuju.
the Geometrical carving
At performance of drawings by the given way of a carving the ornament is created by a combination of various geometrical figures, such, as squares, rhombuses, triangles, circles. Therefore this kind of a plane carving is considered the most simple for development by beginning masters. The geometrical pattern runs into a board plane superficially, therefore this work does not demand the appendix of the big physical efforts.
Drawing on a tree is created from connection of basic elements of the given kind of a carving - small dredging. To begin development of receptions of a geometrical carving is better from performance of two-sided dredging ( fig. 41 ). For performance of a desirable pattern it is possible to use two-sided dredging of different depth, the form and the size, with direct or oblique walls.
a Fig. 41. Two-sided dredging
The triangles of the different form Cut out in wood make trihedral dredging. If dredging is deepened at the triangle basis it name the basic if deepening is located near to a corner (top) - topmost. There are also the central dredging which deepening is located at one of the triangle parties ( fig. 42 ).
a Fig. 42. Trihedral dredging of the various form
Bolshego of skill demands performance of dredging in the form of rectangles, squares and rhombuses. These dredging named tetrahedral, are used at drawing up of difficult patterns ( fig. 43 ).
a Fig. 43. Tetrahedral dredging
For revival of a pattern, giving it originality can cut out various eyes, rays and small lamps ( fig. 44 ).
a Fig. 44. Eyes, rays, small lamps
Having mastered execution of the most simple dredging, it is possible to cut out simple, but an original pattern. Traditional drawing "ыхёхэър" is very simple;. It represents some the two-sided dredging cut out successively ( fig. 45 ).
a Fig. 45. A pattern "ыхёхэър"
For creation of more difficult patterns use of dredging with a great number of sides is necessary. Being combined with each other, they give such elements of an ornament, as rombiki, snakes, chains. It is possible to make of topmost trihedral dredging so-called skolyshki, a beads, kulichiki. The Most interesting drawing is formed at use in one pattern of connections of trihedral dredging of different forms and the sizes ( fig. 46 ).
a Fig. 46. A pattern made of trihedral dredging
Tetrahedral dredging are combined with each other not so often. Usually they recover a pattern, being combined with the most different elements of a carving ( fig. 47 ).
a Fig. 47. Use in a pattern of tetrahedral dredging
For creation of a beautiful, accurate geometrical pattern by the most important it is considered exact placing of all details. Therefore, before to start to work, it is necessary to mark a used board: the simple pencil on a ruler on it puts the lines parallel to edges. The desirable pattern is entered in the received squares ( fig. 48 ) and begins it vyrezyvanie.
a Fig. 48. A pattern marking on a board
Work should be begun with performance of two-sided dredging. Having put to a surface of a board a knife-jamb edge, it is necessary to press its edge into a tree on some millimetres. Face sides turn out by procutting of two small lines, perpendicular to the first. After that, immersing a knife in a board at an angle in 35 - 40 °, the lateral lines parallel median, are cut and the trihedral slice of a tree is taken out. .
To cut out topmost trihedral dredging, it is necessary to designate at first top of a triangle and to put in this end a knife tip. Now one of triangle sides then the knife comes back in a starting point is cut. From it the knife designates a median line and depth of the future dredging. Now from the first top the remained parties of the triangle leaving in a tree on depth set by a median line are spent. .
If it is necessary to make dredging with deepening in the center the center point should be noted on a tree prior to the beginning vyrezyvanija. The triangle center is on crossing of the perpendiculars spent from each top to the party opposite to it. After that the knife in the given point should be lowered an edge in a tree on 4 mm and to connect an edge the center of a triangle to its top. This action is required to repeat 3 times then it is possible to cut the fatal parties of a triangle. .
For reception of the basic triangular dredging the knife edge is put to the basis middle, and the edge goes deep into a tree, connecting this point to opposite top. After that are cut a line of the basis and - at an angle 35-40 ° - triangle lateral faces. .
At performance of tetrahedral dredging it is necessary to draw on a board 2 squares, one of which (smaller) it will be entered in another ( fig. 49 ). After that the knife cuts contours of a smaller square on depth of 3-4 mm, the lines connecting tops bolshego and smaller squares are spent, and cut skosy on the parties bolshego a square. The slice of a tree from the middle easily leaves by means of a direct chisel. .
a Fig. 49. Reception of tetrahedral dredging
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