Vytjagivanie of draughts and models
For manufacturing of draughts and models templates are used. If simple draught or an eaves is required, as a template the profile board will be used. It represents a board from a tree, fettered by a steel or tin strip. For okovki from metal sheet cut off a piece which strengthen on a plate. To it over metal buttons pin a paper with a contour of a template and shilom pierce drawing, transferring it on metal. Having removed a paper, a pencil trace a contour and do a small allowance on which make cutting out. Turned out okovku put on a board and lead round on a contour, and a superfluous tree cut off a sharp knife for profile reception. One party of a board fetter metal, another cut at an angle 20-25 °.
To mount a template, it is necessary to use a board, which length 2 times more than a profile board, - so-called polozok. The more shortly polozok, the template position during time vytjagivanija will be less steady. The profile board is necessary for attaching strongly by means of nails to polozku at an angle 90 °. A ready template establish on a workbench, having pressed polozok to directing rejke ( fig. 28 ). If manufacturing of model by thickness more than 3-4 sm for reduction of its weight it is necessary to create emptiness in plaster draught is supposed. It becomes by means of a special lining which make of clay (a thickness of a lining to 10 sm) or from a tree (a thickness more than 10 sm). Plaster it will be easy to separate from a lining covered with one layer of a paper. The extended product should not be longer 1 m, differently it will be difficult to maintain its straightforwardness.
a Fig. 28. A template for vytjagivanija rectilinear plaster draught of eaves :
1 - directing rejka a workbench; 2 - polozok; 3 - laths; 4 - a template; 5 - a workbench.
For easy sliding of a template before the work beginning it is necessary to grease all its details and a workbench. Started to get thick the plaster solution by means of a shovel needs to be laid out on a workbench. That the model has turned out easier and strong, it is possible to put hemp in the first layer of plaster. All actions should be made very quickly, differently plaster will harden. The template is necessary for moving smoothly along directing rejki, densely pressing it to a workbench. .
When a template move the neoforged part forward, it name movement "эр ыюёъ" when fettered - movement "эр юсфшЁ". The first make movement "эр ыюёъ" in regular intervals to distribute plaster on model. The template can be moved only forward; to a starting position it transfer, having removed from model. Further enclose on a detail plaster and repeat movements "эр ыюёъ" before formation of a product of the demanded form. Then wait, while plaster will not fall asleep, and a superfluous material from model clean template movement "эр юсфшЁ". In the end of work it is necessary to lay out once again on draught liquid plaster and movement "эр ыюёъ" to remove its surplus. The ends of ready draught cut off at an angle 90 °. .
To prevent plaster hardening in an operating time, a solution prepare in the small portions, submitting it to a workplace without breaks. Only at such approach the product consists of homogeneous layers that provides to it durability and a smooth, beautiful surface. .
For manufacturing of platbands one party of draught is necessary for cutting off at an angle 45 °, it will provide dense prileganie details to each other. To a surface of a wall the platbands, which width does not exceed 10 sm, wider fasten on a plaster solution, - by means of nails, crutches and wire suspension brackets.
For vytjagivanija models of the round socket or a wreath make a wooden rotating template with the necessary profile. To a profile board by a nail it is attached radiusnaja rejka. The probe (it is possible to use a nail without a hat) which the ruler ( fig. 29 is put on by the free end radiusnaja is driven in Into the template center). Further work is made in the same way as at vytjagivanii rectilinear eaves, thus the profile board moves on a circle.
a Fig. 29. Vytjagivanie the round socket :
And - a template for vytjagivanija; - vytjagivanie; 1 - a profile board; 2 - polozok; 3 - the probe; 4 - radiusnaja rejka.
At desire it is possible to make the socket with bent to the center or sides curved from the center. For this purpose it is necessary to construct by means of compasses on a template a circle and to divide it into so much parts, how many sides should turn out at the socket. Then through each division into circles from its center lines which should limit movement of a profile board are spent. Now each sector is halved tsentrovymi by axes on which it is necessary to note that place where will take place socket edge. If manufacturing of the socket with convex sides on tsentrovym to axes between edge of the socket and the circle center at one level probes which it is put on radiusnaja rejka are driven in is planned, and by means of a template is made vytjagivanie the bent sides. If socket sides have to be curved to the center probes for a profile board are driven in on the other hand from edge ( fig. 30 ).
a Fig. 30. Vytjagivanie sockets with curvilinear sides :
And - with bent to the center; - with convex from the center.
More difficult in manufacturing, but also much more effective ornament of a facade are sockets with petals. To receive them it is possible in two ways.
Most easier by means of a round template to extend the usual socket. To allocate petals, it is necessary through their middle and the socket center to spend straight lines. Then mark borders of petals, leaving between them small intervals. By means of compasses the roundish top of each petal is created. After that the sharp end of a stack on a petal puts a desirable pattern. .
More difficult way consists in gluing of petals. Extend the usual socket, then with okovki a profile board remove metal on 2-3 mm in that place where there will be a petal. From the neoforged party remove as much a tree. The turned out template mark a place for 1-2 petals. Pair of petals cut out from the turned out model of the socket to take off from their the glutinous uniform. The necessary quantity of petals cast by means of the turned out form and attach on noted place.
It is possible to use the second template for manufacturing of petals or other details of an ornament. From them as the form acts in film, casting of demanded quantity of copies which fasten on preliminary extended socket is made. .
It is simple enough to make vytjagivanie an ellipse (fig. 31). For this purpose from points And and the ellipse model Would be extended by a template attached to long radiusnoj rejke, and from points In and G - the same template attached to short radiusnoj rejke.
a Fig. 31. Vytjagivanie an ellipse.
If in an ornament a beads and peas are used ( a Fig. 32 ), to receive demanded details is possible in two ways. More simple way is especially convenient at peas manufacturing. For this purpose it is necessary to roll hands from clay some equal balls of the necessary size, to take off from their the uniform and to cast from plaster so much peas, how many it is used in a pattern.
a Fig. 32. Ornaments with use of peas and a beads
More difficult way allows to receive various beads and will not cause difficulties in those who has already seized elements vytjagivanija models from plaster. At template manufacturing on it it is necessary to cut out not only a bead profile, but also a plate profile on which this bead is. Vytjagivanie make all in 2 layers for ease of processing of a product tools, using a dense plaster solution.
On ready draught of model of beads and peas cut out, using a semicircular chisel ( fig. 33 ). The received model after zachistki a small skin cover shellakovym with a varnish. For manufacturing of a beads with a repeating detail enough one model, for peas - two-three.
a Fig. 33. A beads :
And - a template for vytjagivanija beads; - it is sharp beads from plaster; 1 - a bead profile, 2 - a plate profile
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