At a choice of a material for manufacturing of carved ornaments of facades it is necessary to study a wood structure carefully. At a cutting wooden bruska divergently it is possible to receive three kinds of textural drawing. The cut at an angle in 45 ° gives the chance to observe the drawing consisting of parallel lines. If brusok has been sawn across fibres in drawing the arrangement of fibres in the form of cones will be visible. And the cut tree is longitudinal has drawing from vertical lines ( fig. 39 ).
a Fig. 39. A cut wooden bruska :
And - longitudinal; - cross-section.
The tree Cross-section gives the chance to define, the given breed concerns what kind. Depending on a structure of a trunk and its colouring two groups of tree species allocate: jadrovye (zabolonnye) and denuclearized. .
Jadrovye of breed whom all coniferous trees (a pine concern, a fur-tree, a yew, a cedar, a larch) and a little deciduous (an oak, an ash-tree and a poplar), at a cut find out in the center of a trunk a kernel - a circle of wood which differs from other part of a trunk (zaboloni) bolshej softness and dark colour. At denuclearized breeds the kernel is not allocated, that is they have the cut of a trunk homogeneous for colouring and quality of wood ( fig. 40 ). To this kind carry almost all deciduous breeds: a hornbeam, a maple, a birch.
a Fig. 40. A tree Cross-section :
And - denuclearized breed; - jadrovoj breeds;
1 - a core; 2 - year rings; 3 - a kernel; 4 - zabolon; 5 - serdtsevinnye beams.
Annual rings, serdtsevinnye beams, outgrowths, knots, runaways form a tree macrostructure. They also influence textural drawing of wood and should be considered necessarily at a choice of a material for performance of carved works. The brightest and accurate macrostructure at such breeds, as an oak, a beech, a hornbeam, at all coniferous. .
To furnish of facades by carved ornaments is better to apply the breeds which textural drawing is expressed poorly. As decorative elements will be on considerable distance from eyes, a leading role the natural pattern of wood, and chosen by the master for execution should play not an ornament. .
For manufacturing of carved products of the big size the material from a tree trunk is used. Usually at an ornament of buildings apply a plane carving which is the most convenient for carrying out on boards. Thus drawing it is necessary to have on length of a board, differently work with a tree will be complicated. .
It is not necessary to use poor-quality, sick wood for work. She is easy for learning on unusual colour and other signs of rotting. The tree having brown, brown or cream colour, is for certain amazed by a fungus, and colour stains speak about mould presence. Tree rotting can begin both with lateral aspect, and from a kernel. It is almost impossible to make a qualitative ornament of such material for a building outer side. .
At a material choice it is necessary to pay attention to presence in wood of knots. More often in the course of work knots drop out, leaving apertures which spoil appearance of a product. At use of coniferous breeds it is necessary to consider that in them there can be places the accumulated pitch. Such zasmolki also it is necessary to consider as defect of wood. At drying the tree can strongly change the form, therefore for work it is necessary to choose the material which has passed long drying.