Solvents and thinners are the liquids applied to dissolution of condensed pitches, oils, razzhizhenija the thickened paints, varnishes, drying oil, for washing of the tool and hands. Acetone, kerosene, gasoline concern them, uajt-spirit, solvent, turpentine, sikkativy.
Acetone represents a colourless liquid and is the best solvent for nitropaints.
Kerosene - colourless or with some shade a liquid. It apply to dissolution of some pitches, washing of the tool and hands after the termination pokrasochnyh works. For razzhizhenija oil paints it is not recommended to use kerosene because of presence in it of non-drying oily impurity.
Gasoline - a colourless liquid which, as well as kerosene, apply as solvent of some kinds of pitches and to washing of brushes, ware, hands.
Uajt-spirit . It still name varnish gasoline or gasoline-solvent. It is a colourless transparent liquid, on a smell reminding gasoline. Use for cultivation of enamels and alkidnyh paints, and also as solvent of some kinds of pitches.
Solvent - a liquid with an original smell. Dissolves artificial drying oils, asphalt varnishes, etc.
Turpentine - colourless or with some shade a liquid with a smell of pine pitch. It apply for razbavlenija oil paints, and also to acceleration of drying of a paint or shpatlevki. It is necessary to mean that badly cleared turpentine, on the contrary, slows down drying and worsens quality of a covering. To check up its quality it is possible as follows: some drops to put on a white blotting paper. If after evaporation does not remain the painted, oily stain, means, turpentine has high quality.
Except specified, the industry lets out both other solvents, and the thinners intended for different painting structures.
It is necessary to remember that all solvents and thinners are inflammable.
Sikkativy - liquids and powders which add in oil paints, enamels, drying oils, varnishes for acceleration of their drying. However they reduce service life of a painting film, therefore needlessly it is better not to use sikkativom. It is not necessary to apply also it instead of a varnish.
For preparation of first coats, shpatlevok, painting structures, and also for performance of a spadework before painting are necessary auxiliary materials. .
Copper kuporos ("ёшэшщ ърьхэі") - dark blue and dark-blue crystals. It apply to manufacturing kuporosnoj first coats, add in limy structures for reception of blue colour. With a water solution copper kuporosa impregnate the wooden and plastered surfaces from fungi. "Ршэшщ ърьхэі" it is impossible to store and dissolve in metal ware as it quickly destroys metals. Copper kuporos it is poisonous.
Alum aljuminievo-kalievye - colourless crystals or a white powder. Apply instead of copper kuporosa at manufacturing of first coats. Addition of alum increases durability of limy structures and paste.
Soda kaltsinirovannaja (carbonic sodium) represents a white powder. Use for dissolution of casein, washing of the smoked surfaces, washing of glasses. .
Liquid ammonia - a colourless liquid with a pungent smell (a water solution of gas of ammonia). Add at manufacturing emulsy. Instead of soda apply to washing of the smoked surfaces.
Hydrochloric acid - a yellowish, slightly smoking liquid. Dissolves a rust. She can be added in limy structures for bolshej their durabilities.
the Laundry soap . It add in first coats, shpatlevki, emulsii. To these purposes apply, as a rule, 40%-s' soap. If washed fatter it take accordingly less. Also it use for washing of tools and hands. .
Leshchad are pieces of a brick from white clay. It apply for zachistki plasters. Instead of leshchadi it is possible to use a usual brick.
Pumice (natural or artificial) - very porous, firm and easy weight. Use for dry or wet zachistki plasters, shpatlevannyh surfaces. .
the Skin (emery paper) is used for polishing and procleaning of surfaces under colouring.
It is necessary to remember that after cleaning and polishing of a surface by an emery paper it is necessary to remove carefully a dust that shpatlevka has not lagged behind a painted surface. For this purpose it is better to use shchetinnuju a brush or a vacuum cleaner, but not a rag (rags).
Paint and varnish coverings as a binding material are subdivided into three groups: water, waterless and emulsionnye painting structures. .
In water paints (limy, cement, glutinous, silicate) as the binding various water-soluble products are applied: glues, cement, izvest, liquid glass, and solvent or razzhizhitelem is water. These paints give the friable air-penetrable coverings proof to action of temperature and a moisture.
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