Colouring is a final stage of furnish of a surface. Before painting spend the spadework, which purpose - increase of durability of a paint and varnish covering, korrozijnoj firmness of a surface and, finally - qualities.
At carrying out of a spadework following materials are necessary: drying oil, smyvka, a first coat, podmazochnaja paste (podmazka), shpatlevka.
Drying oil happens natural, seminatural (oksol) and artificial.
Natural drying oil prepare from sunflower, linen, konopljanogo, cotton or other vegetable oil by provarivanija with sikkativom (industrially). Natural - best of existing drying oils also is applied to colouring of the surfaces subject to atmospheric influences. Do not concede to natural drying oil gliftalevaja and pentaftalevaja.
Gliftalevaja drying oil is made of vegetable oil, glycerine, etc. the solvent Maintenance - no more than 50%.
Pentaftalevuju drying oil prepare from alkidnoj pitches.
Seminatural oksidirovannaja drying oil (oksol) contains to 60% of vegetable oils, and also turpentine or gasoline-solvent (uajt-spirit). It can be applied to colouring both internal, and external parts of the house, except for floors.
Artificial drying oils (sintol, karbonal, etc.) contain an insignificant share of vegetable oil or at all do not contain it. On quality they considerably concede to natural drying oil and oksoli.
Different grades of drying oils can be mixed, however quality of the received mix will be very low.
Smyvki apply to removal of an old paint and varnish covering. On sale happen smyvki various marks. Them prepare from a mix of organic solvents.
For removal of an old oil paint it is possible to prepare paste in house conditions: to mix 10%-s' solution of liquid ammonia (1 part) had (2 parts). In 2-3 hours after drawing of this paste on a surface the paint will be softened, and it can be removed a scraper. It is possible to apply and other way of removal: to iron a surface with an old oil paint through an aluminium foil a hot iron to a softening. After that the paint will easily be cleaned off shpatelem or tsiklej.
Priming spend to create the best coupling of a paint with a painted surface, to provide its uniform vpityvanie and to receive better furnish.
Ogruntovochnye structures (first coats) is razzhizhennyj a binding material, less viscous, than painting structure. After first coat drying on a surface there is a thin water-proof film on which spend painting.
There are the first coats applied only under concrete paints, and also universal.
Priming under an oil paint spend with the help prooliflenija surfaces. For this purpose apply drying oil in the pure state or add in it a few paints that during a first coat to avoid admissions. The above quality of drying oil, the is better linked to it a paint and that above quality ogruntovki.
Well absorbing wood (pine) and plaster (plaster) ground pure drying oil (a colourless first coat).
Less, porous materials - an oak, limy plaster, etc. - can be grounded the drying oil diluted with reference gasoline and turpentine or their substitutes.
At colouring of pure porous wood or plaster apply a colour first coat. In its quality the oil paint (better the same colour, as the basic koler), diluted with turpentine, uajt-spirit, drying oil is used. With the same purpose drying oil in which add pigments or paints (is better minium, ohra, a mummy) is applied.
Structure for prooliflenija: 1 kg of drying oil (it is better natural), 50-100 g a dry pigment or a grated paint.
Structure for ogruntovki: 1 kg of drying oil (it is better natural), 600-1200 g gustotertoj an oil paint.
Drying oil add in a paint, carefully mix, then filter through a fine sieve.
the First coat under limy colouring prepare from the limy fat test, table salt and water. 2,5 kg of the limy test carefully stir in 5 l of cold water. 100 g salts dissolve in 2 l of hot water. It is possible to replace salt 200 g aljuminievo-kalievyh alum. In the dissolved limy dough pour in a thin stream a solution of salt or alum, then add waters to 10 l, carefully mix and filter through a small sieve. .
In quality bases under glutinous colouring use kuporosnuju or kvastsovuju a first coat as in glutinous structures are available shchelochestojkie pigments.
Kuporosnaja a first coat: copper kuporos - 150 g, a laundry soap - 250 g, bone glue - 200 g, drying oil (natural, combined or gliftalevaja) - 30 g, water - 200
Kvastsovaja a first coat: alum aljuminievo-kalievye - 125 g, soap economic - 250 g, glue bone - 200 g, drying oil - 30 g, water - 200
The Way of preparation: at first it is necessary to prepare the basic components. Glue preliminary to presoak in cold water (1: 1), then to warm up before full dissolution; soap to rub to (cut) a small shaving and to fuse (for kvastsovoj first coats soap rasplavljajut with addition of 20% of water); copper kuporos and alum to crush. .
In hot the fused soap to add drying oil at continuous stirring. Thus it will turn out dense oil-soap emulsija. It mix with a hot solution of glue and boil this structure at stirring before full dissolution of soap. Then in the received weight add at intensive hashing copper kuporos or alum then it at once pour out in the form and after cooling cut on pieces.
Kuporosnuju can be stored a first coat no more than 2 months (only in the enameled or wooden ware), kvastsovuju - no more than 10 days. .
For preparation of a liquid first coat from the received firm concentrate it is necessary to cut its thin shaving, to fill in with boiling water and continuously to pound before full dissolution. In the cooled down solution to add a chalk sifted through a fine sieve (2 kg of a chalk on 10 l of a liquid). .
Under limy and glutinous (cretaceous) colouring it is possible to prepare a universal first coat - mylovar.
This first coat prepare from a laundry soap, drying oils and to exhaust-kipelki (not slaked to exhaust): 200 g the soap cut by a shaving dissolve in 3 l of boiling water. Then in a hot soap solution at constant stirring add 100-300 g drying oils and carefully mix. In other ware (enameled) extinguish 2 kg to exhaust-kipelki a threefold quantity of water. During clearing to exhaust (at the most intensive steam formation) enter a solution of soap with drying oil and thus carefully mix. When the received structure will start to get denser, add water to 10 l and filter through a sieve.
It is possible to prepare the First coat-mylovar on the limy test (instead of to exhaust-kipelki), but its quality will be worse.
For preparation of first coats it is better to use the wooden, glass or enameled ware. The aluminium and zinced ware quickly collapses. But it is possible to paint it 2-3 layers with an oil paint, well to dry and thus to protect from destruction (rzhavenija). .
It is necessary to remember that all prepared liquid first coats should be used within two days.
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