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Plates from a natural stone

At facing of facades by a natural stone it is necessary to face following difficulties:

  • the natural stone has the big weight, process of its packing labour-consuming enough;

  • the details of a facade decorated with natural materials are considerably made heavier and increase pressure upon the base and a ground therefore there can be deposits of construction or appear cracks and warps of walls;

  • the natural stone demands cement mortal heavy expenses.

Facing plates are made usually of rocks - a granite, labradorita, marble, limestone, sandstone and a tufa. The characteristic of a plate from a natural stone depends on rock from which it is received.

The short characteristic of breeds is more low resulted:

the Granite - has zernistokristallicheskuju structure of grey, bluish-grey or dark red colour. Happens fine-grained and coarse-grained. Possesses the big resistibility to external mechanical influences (especially fine-grained granity). Because of the maloporistosti differs small water absorptivity, frost resistance and durability.

Granity perfectly move to grinding and polishing.

Labradorit has coarse-grained structure. Happens dark green, black, black to blue-green modulations. There is enough prochen.

Marble - zernistokristallicheskaja structure of white, grey, yellow, pink, red or black colour with proveins and without them. Very well gives in to processing: it is sawn, ground, and it is polished. It is moisture resistant, but reacts to natural dyes.

Limestone - sedimentary rock which consists from kaltsita with a clay and sand impurity. White or grey limestone is most popular; it is known also bluish, golden and cream.

Sandstone - the sedimentary rock formed from stsementirovannyh among themselves of clay to exhaust, grains of various minerals and rocks (stsementirovannyj mountain sand). Colouring can be kremovo-sulphur, sand or reddish.

the Tufa - rock of a various origin with characteristic porous structure. Shares on limy, siliceous and volcanic. Represents stsementirovannyj a friable product of volcanic eruptions. It is very easy.

The Invoice of obverse sides of plates depends on a way of processing and happens corrugated, furrowed, dot, pilenoj, shlifovannoj, glossy or polished ( tab. 1 ).

Table 1. The recommended invoice for various breeds of the stone used in external facing

BREEDS OF THE FACING STONE RECOMMENDED INVOICES
a kind a version optimum supposed
Quartzites - Polished Glossy
Red coarse-grained and porfirovidnyj the Same Glossy, melkobugristaja, shod
Red sredne - and fine-grained the Same the Rock
Granity Dark grey the Rock Melkobugristaja, shod
Light grey the Rock, shlifovannaja Shod, melkobugristaja, polished
Labradority Grey Polished the Rock
Black the Same -
Gabbro Black the Same the Rock, shod
Marble White Shlifovannaja Glossy
Limestones and dolomite Dense Shlifovannaja, hilly Corrugated
Tufy Zonalno-poloschatyj (bolnissky) Shlifovannaja -
Color (artiksky) Hilly Shlifovannaja

Damaged by transportation or in the course of installation facing details are corrected on a work place. It is necessary to finish zamkovye facing elements (an average stone at installation of each number) and the facing plates which are let out by the enterprises with the positive admission.

The Stone can be processed or manually, or on special small-sized machine tools (for example, on the machine tool for grindings etc. are sharp a granite, marble.). For a fringing of plates (corrections in the sizes) use okantovochnyj the machine tool, and for restoration of the mirror invoice - grinding. Nests for fastening of granite facing drill by means of pneumatic hammers, marble - electrodrilling or electrogrooving car.

Special tools are intended For exact shock processing of a stone. Skarpel ( fig. 11а ) - one of kinds of a steel chisel. With its help exact shock processing of edges of adjacent elements is carried out and the definitive size of a facing detail is given.

Tools for exact shock processing of a stone: and - a scalpel

a Fig. 11 Tools for exact shock processing of a stone : and - a scalpel

Shpunt ( fig. 11 ) - a round or cut steel core in length to 250 mm, pointed from one end. It is used for processing of a stone after otkola zakolnikom or rasklinivanija.

Tools for exact shock processing of a stone: - shpunt

a Fig. 11 Tools for exact shock processing of a stone : - shpunt

Trojanka ( fig. 11 in ) - a sharp chisel with a teeth. It is intended for processing of breeds of average hardness.

a Fig. 11 Tools for exact shock processing of a stone: in - trojanka

a Fig. 11 Tools for exact shock processing of a stone : in - trojanka

On tools strike a steel hammer in weight 0,5-2 kg. At shock processing of a stone apply also electrohammers.

Facing plates produce usually with various degree of processing of a surface that is reflected in a way of installation and zadelki seams between them. The thickness of seams between plates should be no more than 2-3 mm. In this case details establish on a cement mortal. .

For fastening to a facade on plates punch special grooves and nests.

To a revetted design of a plate attach by means of metal hooks, crutches, anchors, skob and pironov. .

Anchors and crutches close up in the nests located in a design. More often they are applied at facing by very heavy plates to their strongest fastening with the basis.

The Ends of fastenings are bent and closed up in a solution, then rasklinivajutsja in nests by steel wedges.

In case of a nonrigid fastening with a laying facing plates establish on vertical cores which are fixed skobami to a wall in the course of a laying or after it. Thus plates attach sliding skobami to vertical cores. .

For stronger fastening to a vertical surface of a plate supply with anchors: drill apertures in edges of plates, in which zachekanivajut metal short moustaches.

During facing a plate try on dry to a wall and bore through apertures in places of occurrence of short moustaches in a wall. Other party of short moustaches zachekanivajut. .

After an establishment of plates of the first row a backlash between a plate and a wall fill in with a peschano-cement mortal. Facing of walls is made on a cold-resistant cement-sandy solution; the laying is carried out in the seamless way. .

That the solution got into backlashes, internal corners of plates stesyvajutsja at an angle approximately 45 ° is better.


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