Plaster solutions prepare from a knitting material, a filler and water by their careful hashing.
The solution Name speaks about presence at it of a concrete knitting material and a filler. Structures of solutions can be designated in the form of a digital parity in which the volume fraction of a binding material is accepted to unit. The following figure specifies a filler volume fraction. If in a solution two knitting substances cement is accepted to unit are used, then the share of other knitting material and other components concerning cement is underlined. For example, a cement mortal - from 1: 2 to 1: 5 (cement: sand); cement-limy - from 1: 1: 6 to 1: 1: 9 (cement: izvest: sand).
For volume unit it is possible to accept capacity of a bucket, a shovel, etc.
Solution Components need to be sifted or filtered through a sieve. Dry components should be mixed carefully, and then to add water. From to exhaust and clay at first prepare the dough then in it add a filler.
Plaster solutions subdivide on fat and lean. Fat name the solutions containing many knitting material. They give big usadku and it is easy rastreskivajutsja. Lean contain a small amount of knitting substance and more filler. These solutions do not give usadki; not rastreskivajutsja, however they insufficiently strong for the reason otslaivanija sand. The best solutions - normal - with an optimum parity of knitting substance and a filler.
Fat content and a solution consistence is defined by means of an oar or a shovel with which it mix. If the solution at hashing sticks to an oar means, it lean and in it it is necessary to add a knitting material. If slightly sticks is a normal solution. If sticks strongly - a solution fat in it it is necessary to add a filler.
The Plaster solution 50 sm, length 1 m and more are convenient to prepare in a box made of boards, depth of 10-20 sm, width. It is possible to prepare small portions of a solution in a metal trough.
The Plaster layer consists of three separately put layers: obryzga, a ground and nakryvki.
Obryzg - the first layer, thickness from 3 to 5 mm. The solution should be an average consistence.
the Ground - the second layer, the basic. It is put testoobraznym by a solution in the thickness of 7-8 mm if its structure includes plaster, or 9-12 mm - without plaster.
Nakryvka - the third layer, thickness about 2 mm smetanoobraznoj consistences - for usual plaster - and 4-7 mm - for decorative external plaster.
At oshtukaturivanii facades of houses apply cement or cement-limy solutions. Cement raises moisture resistance and frost resistance of a covering, provides good coupling with a surface, and izvest does a solution more plastic and convenient in work. .
the Cement mortal prepare from a dry mix of cement and sand. Before the work beginning in this mix add water to the necessary consistence. For external plaster of walls and other elements of a building which are exposed to atmospheric influences, the following structure of a dry mix (mas is applied. ch.): for obryzga - 1: 2-3 (cement: sand); for a ground - 1: 1,5-2,5; for nakryvki - 1: 1-1,5. For plasticity in a cement mortal it is possible to add a small amount of the limy test (to 0,1 volumes). This solution seizes within 40-50 minutes, therefore it is necessary to prepare it in the small portions.
cement-limy a solution prepare the same as also cement, only in a dry mix add instead of water limy milk before reception of necessary viscosity. This solution is plastic, well sticks to a surface. .
the Limy solution . For its preparation on 1 part of the limy test take from 1 to 5 parts of sand - depending on appointment of a plaster layer and fat content to exhaust. For obryzga - 1: 2,5-5 (izvest: sand); for a ground - 1: 2-3; for nakryvki - 1: 1-2. To facilitate grinding of the limy test, in it it is necessary to add a few sand, water, and then to mix. After that gradually to enter the sand rest, each time, carefully mixing before reception of normal fat content. This solution can be applied only in day of preparation.
the Izvestkovo-plaster solution . At its manufacturing in a limy solution add plaster to accelerate tverdenie. For obryzga the following structure is recommended: 1: 0,3-1: 2-3 (izvest: plaster: sand); for a ground - 1: 0,5-1,5: 1,5-2; for nakryvki - 1: 1-1,5: 0. This solution starts to harden in 4-5 minutes after connection with water and in 30 minutes definitively hardens. To slow down shvatyvanie, add a water solution of glue (bone or mezdrovogo) and to exhaust in the ratio 1: 0,5: 8,5 (glue: izvest: water). .
the Clay solution prepare the same as also limy. Instead of sand for it it is better to use straw sechku, a shaving or sawdust. Thanking it napolniteljam the big durability and viscosity of weight is reached.
Of clay make the mixed solutions: glinoizvestkovyj, glinotsementnyj and glinogipsovyj. .
In glinoizvestkovom a solution on 1 part of the clay test take 0,3-0,4 parts of the limy test and 3-6 parts of sand. The quantity of sand depends on fat content of clay and the limy test.
Glinotsementnyj prepare a solution from 1 part of a clay solution, 0,15-0,2 parts of cement and 3-5 parts of sand. .
Glinogipsovyj prepare a solution from 1 part of the clay test, 0,25 parts of plaster and 3-5 parts of sand.