The brightest and unusual decorative ornament of glass windows and doors is the stained-glass window or the decorated glass.
In IV century of our era colour glass start to apply to filling of window apertures. The greatest popularity among structures in which decorative ornament stained-glass windows were used, was received by the Sofia cathedral erected in 537 of our era.
Later the manufacturing techniques of the decorated windowpane get to the Arabian states and in colonies of Roman empire. Certainly, both the technology, and a glass chemical compound considerably differed from the modern.
We Will result one of ancient ways of reception of sheet glass. In the beginning from steklomassy the cylindrical jar which then was cooled, made an incision lengthways was blown and was located in the furnace. There preparation was straightened, turning to sheet.
The First painted windowpanes have appeared in the beginning of X century of our era in Germany. The novelty has very quickly got popularity and was widely adopted in many countries.
During this period the following manufacturing techniques of the decorated glass were most often used. In the beginning the stained-glass window ornament was put by the artist on a sheet of paper, then the separate elements-templates painted in various colours were cut out from it. After that separate fragments of an ornament on which enamel was put were made of sheet of glass by means of templates. The painted fragments burnt in the furnace, then from them collected drawing, connecting elements lead probes.
In XII century a great popularity have got medalonnye stained-glass windows. The image of the subject compositions located in a square or a circle was their distinctive feature. In a basis of compositions real historical events more often laid down.
Medalonnye stained-glass windows consisted of several multi-coloured slices of glass and have always been sustained in one style with the architectural decision of all building. During the same time were extended also the stained-glass windows representing faces of the sacred. In Germany the decorated glass gets the greatest popularity in XIV century
In the first decades of XVI century there are new manufacturing techniques of stained-glass windows. Its essence consisted that the ornament was put by paints on usual sheet glass, instead of was made of smalt slices. It has allowed the artists working in this direction, most full to show the talent. Smalt is the opaque glass of various colours having the form of plates or cubes. Sometimes on glass the well-known pictures of artists of that epoch were transferred.
The Greatest distribution vitrazhnoe has received art in XIV-XVII centuries Then attention of artists is switched to volume decorative products from glass. The new stage in glass-painting development begins in the beginning of XIX century
The Decorated glass made in the countries of Middle East and Central Asia, differs unique ease, brightness and grace. He is easy for distinguishing on the shades of blue and dark blue colours used in an ornament. This choice speaks that in the East countries most often in registration of interiors the dark blue colours creating against street heat sensation of a cool are used. It is interesting that it proves to be true experimentally: temperature in premises with an interior executed in dark blue tones, below temperature in the street on 5-7 °s.
One more distinctive feature of the stained-glass windows made in the countries of the East, that they are placed in a framework is. As a rule, it is executed from a stone or a tree and decorated by florid east ornament.
In the United States of America vitrazhnoe art has come only in the beginning of XX century To the same time the new stage in development of art of the decorated glass begins. For example, in Switzerland the glass painting school is created. In the middle of the century in France the group of artists which is engaged in a list of a windowpane starts to work. Such known masters entered into it, as Fernan Lezhe - the author of work "-хтѕ°ър with уюыѕс ьш" (1951); Jacque Villon who has executed in 1957 of a list at windows of a cathedral in Metz, and Geren - the author of stained-glass windows for the Montreal exhibition of 1967
In territory of Ancient Russia vitrazhnoe art has appeared in X century This fact confirm found on territory of Novgorod, Chernigov, Grodno and Galich fragments of the colour stained-glass windows concerning by XIII century
Feature of manufacturing techniques of stained-glass windows of that period is that they have been executed from the slices of colour glass alloyed among themselves. Elements of the decorated glass were painted in various colours: yellow, red, green, blue, dark blue and violet. Thus they had the most improbable shades. The ready stained-glass window, as a rule, consisted in a framework from copper. .
In XVIII century M.V.Lomonosov develops technology of a batch production of smalt from glass under own recipe. It was used for decorative registration of windowpanes.
In XIX century at the Petersburg glass factory of the master make some stained-glass windows which are copies of pictures of known artists. They have been used for dressing of windows on buildings of the Armory Museum, Academy of arts etc.
In the end of XIX century projects of some buildings provided use of stained-glass windows for an ornament of window apertures. .
Among the most known Russian artists who are engaged vitrazhnym in art, it is possible to name M.A.Vrubel ( fig. 24 ), V.N.Vasnetsova, N.K.Roerich, F. O.Shehtelja, V.F.Volkotta, etc. Their work decorated not only the state buildings, but also private residences of many known people of that time.
a Fig. 24. A stained-glass window "р№чрЁі". M.A.Vrubel. Russia. 90th of XIX century
In 1899 in Petersburg the School of baron Shtiglitsa, and in Moscow - Stroganovsky school opens. They begin preparation of masters vitrazhnogo arts.
In 50th of XX century wide popularity is got by the stained-glass windows made by such known masters of Latvia and Lithuania, as E.Vejland, A.Garbauskas, E.Bin, K.Morkunas, A.Stoshkus, etc.
In the middle of XX century the center of manufacturing of the Russian stained-glass windows Industrial complex it becomes decorative-art of decoration at the Moscow branch of Art fund of the Russian Federation. .
The Special place in modern vitrazhnom art works of masters of the Moscow higher is art-industrial school, executed under the direction of artist-vitrazhista V.P.Statuna ( occupy fig. 25 ). On chair of art ceramics and glass students and teachers of school had been developed new technology of cooking of glass-smalt. Use of the collapsible form has allowed to accelerate and simplify considerably manufacturing process vitrazhnogo glasses.
a Fig. 25. A stained-glass window "ррёётх=". V.P.Statuna's work. 1968
For manufacturing of stained-glass windows in house conditions it is possible to take advantage of one of five ways.
the Way the first . For this way it is necessary to take two sheets of transparent glass and glass smalt of necessary colours. On one sheet of glass drawing from slices of smalt which then is covered with the second sheet gives all the best. That drawing did not move, the stained-glass window should be placed in a wooden or metal framework. .
the Way of the second . For this way from sheet of colour glass cut out necessary elements of drawing. Then prepare the metal cliche completely repeating contours of drawing. In it fix glass elements of a stained-glass window.
the Way the third . In the beginning it is necessary to prepare cast glass elements. Then from them collect drawing, fastening elements pitch.
the Way the fourth . In the beginning on sheet of transparent glass paints put drawing. Its contours can be planned a thread. After that the stained-glass window burns furnaces at temperature 540-560°С. .
the Way the fifth . For this way it is useful sheet of transparent glass and slices of smalt of various colours. In the beginning on glass contours of drawing which gives all the best then from the slices of smalt fixed by means of synthetic glue are put.