The Window block consists from svetoprozrachnogo a material - glasses - and a frame which consists of a box and shutters fixed on it. The frame can be made of various materials: wood, aluminium, a steel, plastic, plastic etc.
Teploizoljatsionnaja ability of a window depends on quantity of air layers. The lowest teploizoljatsionnymi characteristics the wooden window block with unary ostekleniem possesses. In this case for the winter period it is necessary to put an additional frame.
The Wooden window block with double ostekleniem and the coupled covers has high enough heat-shielding characteristics. The block with separate ostekleniem has higher heat-shielding.
The widest application in northern areas of Russia was received by wooden window blocks threefold ostekleniem and the separately-coupled covers. Teploizolirujushchie characteristics, such block correspond to characteristics of the wall which have been laid out from a clay brick on a cement-sandy solution, which thickness of 0,38 sm ( fig. 21 ).
a Fig. 21. Designs of wooden window blocks :
And - with unary ostekleniem;. - with double ostekleniem; in - with double ostekleniem in separate covers; - with threefold ostekleniem in the separately-coupled covers; d. - with fourfold ostekleniem. 1 - osteklenie; 2 - window cover; 3 - a window box; 4 - podokonnaja a board; 5 - a wall.
In some northern areas most pertinently use of window blocks with fourfold ostekleniem. Their basic lacks are big and high cost that does not allow to them to be widely adopted.
For protection of window blocks against a bad weather - snow, a rain, radiation of solar beams - the design of the wooden window block which external cover is made of aluminium has been invented or has aluminium facing.
Now the double-glazed windows applied to filling of light apertures use a great popularity. At the heart of their device two or more glasses which are tightly connected on perimetre and are divided by air layers. There are some versions of double-glazed windows: welded, pajanye and kleenye. Most often in modern building are used kleenye the double-glazed windows which were widely adopted thanks to the profitability and long term of operation.
High teploizoljatsionnye properties of double-glazed windows speak presence in their device of a tight air layer which is filled by dehydrated air. Thanks to that the air layer is tightly isolated, the moisture does not get to it. It provides the best light exposure of a premise.
The Distance between glasses in a double-glazed window fluctuates from 1,2 sm to 2 Glasses see are fixed raspornymi by frameworks which are made of a deep aluminium profile, and cracks between cover and glass are filled with not hardening mastic.
Also in the industry window blocks with two double-glazed windows are issued. They accordingly have high heat-shielding characteristics. .
Use in window blocks of the special glasses possessing lowered heat conductivity, allows to keep temperature indoors during the winter period.
For protection against solar radiation such kinds of glasses, as teplootrazhajushchie, heat-absorbing and neutrally painted are used. If on window lateral aspect heat-absorbing glass at influence on it of solar beams there can be its strong heating and thermal deformation is established. It demands additional equipment of light apertures by compensating linings. As a rule, heat-absorbing glass at double osteklenii establish outside, and teplootrazhajushchee glass - from an internal part. Such arrangement of glasses is more rational and allows to keep heat indoors during the winter period. .
There are two versions of heat-absorbing glasses: painted in weight and with a film covering. The first kind includes the big variety of glasses into which structure are entered oksidy copper, iron and zinc. Their heat-absorbing properties consist that ready glass passes a visible part of a spectrum, detaining thus the most part of infra-red beams. .
The Second kind of heat-absorbing glasses turns out as a result of drawing on their surface of a thin film from an okisno-metal covering a method of dispersion or electrochemical processing. The okisno-olovjanno-antimonic covering and a covering are applied to these purposes from oksidov copper and lead.
Teplootrazhajushchie of glass are made with drawing on their surface of the most thin films of various metals and them oksidov: gold, silver, nickel, copper, chrome, aluminium and the titan. Glasses with a covering from gold possess the highest teplootrazhajushchimi qualities, however have the high price which does not allow them to receive wide application. .
Beskorobchatye of a window who are established in single-layered keramzitobetonnye panels, possess high heat-shielding properties ( fig. 22 ). The role of a window box carries out a contour of a window aperture of the panel. It is carried out taking into account a profile of adjoining shutters. That cold air did not get through a window, under naplavom an internal shutter it is necessary to establish linings from penopoliuretana and linings from porous rubber which have on keramzitobetonnoj to a box on perimetre of an internal shutter and under naplavom an internal shutter. Thus very important precisely to observe the sizes of window shutters and keramzitobetonnyh panels.
a Fig. 22. A beskorobchatoe window :
1 - osteklenie; 2 - cover; 3 - a wall.
Heat-shielding properties of wooden window boxes and beskorobchatyh windows are identical, however the last in 1,5 times pass air more. .
Now in building are often used shumozashchitnye windows with the separate covers which thickness of glasses reaches to 6 mm. Also their distinctive feature is presence of condensing linings in pritvorah external and internal cover with valves-mufflers. Good tightness of connections of glasses with covers, pritvorami covers and window leaves allows to raise heat-shielding properties of a window. Constant airing of a premise is carried out by means of vertical valves and a narrow shutter. Most pertinently to arrange pritochnyj the valve over the heating device, to provide optimum parametres of air indoors (humidity, cleanliness, temperature).